Subronto, Y. W., Kusmayanti, N. A., Abdalla, A. S., & Sattwika, P. D. (2020). Nevirapine and tuberculosis predict first-line treatment failure in HIV patients in Indonesia: Case-control study. Annals of Medicine & Surgery, 60, 56-60. doi: 10.1016/j.amsu.2020.10.005
Introduction: Indonesia antiretroviral therapy guideline suggests the use of Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regiments as first line of HIV treatment and Protease Inhibitor to replace NNRTI when treatment failure occurred. This case-control study was aimed to study factors predicting first-line ART treatment failure among HIV positive patients aged >15 years, non-pregnant, and registered in our institution, Indonesia. Methods: Diagnosis of HIV treatment failure was made according to the standard WHO criteria. Demographic and outcome variables were recorded. The association between variables were analyzed by Chi-square test with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), followed by multivariate analysis using logistic regression test. Results: Twenty-six index cases and 26 age- and sex-matched control cases were included in the study with a mean age of 32.27 ± 8.7 years and 32.88 ± 8.15 years, respectively. Median time for switching to second-line (Lopinavir/ritonavir, LPV/r) was 46.32 ± 30.21 months. Patients presented with tuberculosis and treated by nevirapine as the first-line treatment were 26.6-folds (95% CI: 2.41–293.81, p = 0.007) and 6.7–folds (95% CI: 1.56–28.45, p = 0.011) higher risk for treatment failure, respectively. Conclusion: The presence of tuberculosis and the use of nevirapine in first-line treatment were strong predictors for first-line ARV treatment failure, suggesting for closer clinical monitoring for patients with those conditions. A further and larger prospective cohort study is needed to confirm the findings in this study.