Riono, P., & Challacombe, S. J. (2020). HIV in Indonesia and in neighbouring countries and its social impact. Oral Diseases, 26(Suppl. 1): 28-33. DOI: 10.1111/odi.13560
HIV incidence is still increasing in parts of Indonesia and in several Asian Countries. New cases of HIV in Indonesia have risen from 7,000 per year in 2006 to 48,000 per year in 2017. In spite of this increase, the number of newly diagnosed cases of AIDS has decreased from a peak of over 12,000 in 2013 to a little over 9,000 in 2017. The mean prevalence of HIV in Indonesia is 0.41% but there is a ten-fold difference in the prevalence in different regions with the highest in Papua (5%). Women represent over 35% of new infections per year and of the total (640,000) in Indonesia. Over 50% of HIV diagnoses are made when patients already have AIDS. Stigma and discrimination are still strong barriers in prevention and treatment but also there are considerable challenges in access to appropriate anti-retroviral therapy. There is a need for further investment in HIV Programs in Indonesia so that prevention can be enhanced, and diagnosis made at an earlier stage. Health Professionals including dentists should be readily willing to provide joint prevention efforts and care to people at risk and with HIV and other infectious diseases to help meet the WHO aims of 2030. Public health programmes are needed to make certain that the general public is aware of HIV testing and the role of dental healthcare workers in facilitating this, thereby further normalising attitudes to people living with HIV.